Arthur Koestler Jewish Historian
ARTHUR KOESTLER was born Jewish in 1905 in Budapest. Though he studied science and psychology in Vienna, at the age of twenty he became a foreign correspondent and worked for various European newspapers in the Middle East, Paris, Berlin, Russia and Spain.
During the Spanish Civil War, which he covered from the Republican side, he was captured andimprisoned for several months by the Nationalists, but was exchanged after international protest. In 1939-40 he was interned in a French detention camp. After his release, due to British government
intervention, he joined the French Foreign Legion, subsequently escaped to England, and joined the
Like many other intellectuals in the thirties, Koestler saw in the Soviet experiment the only hope and
alternative to fascism. He became a member of the Communist Party in 1931, but left it in disillusionment during the Moscow purges in 1938. His earlier books were mainly concerned with these experiences, either in autobiographical form or in essays or political novels. Among the latter, Darkness At Noon has been translated into thirty-three languages, After World War 11, Mr. Koestler became a British citizen, and all his books since 1940 have been written in English, He now lives in London. but he frequently lectures at American universities, and was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford in 1964-65.
In 1968 Mr. Koestler received the Sonning Prize at the University of Copenhagen for his contributions
to European culture. He is also a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, as well as one of the ten Companions of Literature, elected by the Royal Society of Literature. His works are now being republished in a collected edition of twenty volumes.